Applicants are strongly encouraged to propose individual, or cluster randomized controlled trials; however, well-specified natural experiments will also be considered. Applicants are required to pay special attention to issues of intervention implementation with an aim of facilitating widespread uptake of findings after completion of the study. Toward that end, mixed methods designs, or robust process evaluations are required for all applications. For this PFA, since one of the primary aims must be focused on a comparative clinical effectiveness research question, hybrid type 1 and hybrid type 2 designs may be appropriate. However, hybrid type 3 designs, for which the primary aim is implementation research, will not be considered responsive.
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