It is anticipated that proposed studies will focus on older adults (ages 65+). Seriously ill patients who are expected to require end-of-life care are outside the scope of this PFA. Older adults with underlying dementia may be included, but such applications should be adequately powered for heterogeneity of effects or subgroup analysis. Studies that focus on populations who would benefit from health equity approaches. For example, studies on rural-dwelling, low-income, racial/ethnic groups, individuals with low health literacy, limited English proficiency, or living in unstable circumstances are encouraged, as are studies that provide knowledge about an intervention’s impact on multiple subgroups. The inclusion of caregivers is encouraged but not required; please refer to the PFA for specific guidance.
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