PCORI is interested in prospective, observational, and randomized controlled studies that directly address the two questions stated in the funding announcement and gather patient-reported outcomes. These may take advantage of natural experiments in differences in benefit design or opioid policies across organizations or payers. Additionally, prospective cohort studies with data sufficient to address the possibility of bias and allow for causal inference would be considered. Proposals should not be retrospective or solely based on cross-sectional studies or simple pre-post designs without an appropriate comparison.
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